Back to article: COX-2 upregulation by tumour cells post-chemotherapy fuels the immune evasive dark side of cancer inflammation

FIGURE 1. Cytotoxic therapy modulates tumour-associated inflammation via activation of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway. Chemotherapy upregulates COX-2 transcription and downstream PGE2 production in dying cancer cells, inducing an inflammatory response that limits the efficacy of chemoimmunotherapy combinations. Inhibition of COX-2 alongside chemoimmunotherapy treatment enhances immune-mediated tumour growth control and prevents metastasis in pre-clinical models.

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