Advance online publication:

This section includes articles accepted for publication in Cell Stress, which have not been released in a regular issue, yet. Please note that the PDF versions of advance publication articles are generally paginated starting with page 1. This does not correspond to the final pagination upon release of the issue it will appear in.

 

Ribosome traffic jam in neurodegeneration: decoding hurdles in Huntington disease

Srinivasa Subramaniam

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A ribosome typically moves at a particular rate on a given mRNA transcript to decode the nucleic acid information required to synthesize proteins. The speed and directionality of the ribosome movements during mRNA translation are determined by the mRNA sequence and structure and by various decoding factors. However, the molecular mechanisms of this remarkable movement during protein synthesis, or its relevance in brain disorders, remain unknown. Recent studies have indicated that defects in protein synthesis occur in various neurodegenerative diseases, but the mechanistic details are unclear. This is a major problem because identifying the factors that determine protein synthesis defects may offer new avenues for developing therapeutic remedies for currently incurable diseases like neurodegenerative disorders. Based on our recent study (Eshraghi et al., Nat Commun 12(1):1461; doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21637-y), this short commentary will review the mechanistic understanding of Huntingtin (HTT)-mediated ribosome stalling indicating that central defects in protein synthesis in Huntington disease (HD) are orchestrated by jamming of ribosomes on mRNA transcripts.

PDF | Published online: 03/05/2021 | In press

The evolution of the concept of stress and the framework of the stress system

Siyu Lu, Fang Wei and Guolin Li

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Stress is a central concept in biology and has now been widely used in psychological, physiological, social, and even environmental fields. However, the concept of stress was cross-utilized to refer to different elements of the stress system including stressful stimulus, stressor, stress response, and stress effect. Here, we summarized the evolution of the concept of stress and the framework of the stress system. We find although the concept of stress is developed from Selye’s “general adaptation syndrome”, it has now expanded and evolved significantly. Stress is now defined as a state of homeostasis being challenged, including both system stress and local stress. A specific stressor may potentially bring about specific local stress, while the intensity of stress beyond a threshold may commonly activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and result in a systematic stress response. The framework of the stress system indicates that stress includes three types: sustress (inadequate stress), eustress (good stress), and distress (bad stress). Both sustress and distress might impair normal physiological functions and even lead to pathological conditions, while eustress might benefit health through hormesis-induced optimization of homeostasis. Therefore, an optimal stress level is essential for building biological shields to guarantee normal life processes.

PDF | Published online: 26/04/2021 | In press

Coping with the calcium overload caused by cell injury: ER to the rescue

Goutam Chandra, Davi A. G. Mázala and Jyoti K. Jaiswal

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Cells maintain their cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) in nanomolar range and use controlled increase in Ca2+ for intracellular signaling. With the extracellular Ca2+ in the millimolar range, there is a steep Ca2+ gradient across the plasma membrane (PM). Thus, injury that damages PM, leads to a cytosolic Ca2+ overload, which helps activate PM repair (PMR) response. However, in order to survive, the cells must cope with the Ca2+ overload. In a recent study (Chandra et al. J Cell Biol,doi: 10.1083/jcb.202006035) we have examined how cells cope with injury-induced cytosolic Ca2+ overload. By monitoring Ca2+ dynamics in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we found that PM injury-triggered increase in cytosolic Ca2+ is taken up by the ER. Pharmacological inhibition of ER Ca2+ uptake interferes with this process and compromises the repair ability of the injured cells. Muscle cells from patients and mouse model for the muscular dystrophy showed that lack of Anoctamin 5 (ANO5)/Transmembrane protein 16E (TMEM16E), an ER-resident putative Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC), are poor at coping with cytosolic Ca2+ overload. Pharmacological inhibition of CaCC and lack of ANO5, both prevent Ca2+ uptake into ER. These studies identify a requirement of Cl uptake by the ER in sequestering injury-triggered cytosolic Ca2+ increase in the ER. Further, these studies show that ER helps injured cells cope with Ca2+ overload during PMR, lack of which contributes to muscular dystrophy due to mutations in the ANO5 protein.

PDF | Published online: 16/04/2021 | In press

Cellular mechanisms linking cancers to obesity

Xiao-Zheng Liu, Line Pedersen and Nils Halberg

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Obesity is epidemiologically linked to 13 forms of cancer. The local and systemic obese environment is complex and likely affect tumors through multiple avenues. This includes modulation of cancer cell phenotypes and the composition of the tumor microenvironment. A molecular understanding of how obesity links to cancer holds promise for identifying candidate genes for targeted therapy for obese cancer patient. Herein, we review both the cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms linking obesity and cancer as well as provide an overview of the mouse model systems applied to study this.

PDF | Published online: 12/04/2021 | In press

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