Back to article: Novel insights at the crossroads of antibiotic use and cancer risk

FIGURE 1: Possible effects of antibiotics on cancer. Antibiotic-mediated effects on cancer are illustrated according to their direct effects on cancer via specific targeting (black line), antibacterial activity (red line) and immunomodulatory activity (purple line), with arrows indicating activating and blunt ended lines indicating anticancer effects. However, some effects are indirectly (dashed line) linked to cancer, as they have a strong impact on the immune response and thus on the immune equilibrium between bacteria, cancer and immune cells. It should also be noted that it is not clear yet wheather some of the effects are due to antibiotics, bacteria themselves or bacterial products released independently of antibiotics or upon antibiotic exposure.

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