Advance online publication:

This section includes articles accepted for publication in Cell Stress, which have not been released in a regular issue, yet. Please note that the PDF versions of advance publication articles are generally paginated starting with page 1. This does not correspond to the final pagination upon release of the issue it will appear in.

 

Biomechanical stress provides a second hit in the establishment of BMP/TGFβ-related vascular disorders

Christian Hiepen, Jerome Jatzlau and Petra Knaus

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Cardiovascular disorders are still the leading cause for mortality in the western world and challenge economies with steadily increasing healthcare costs. Understanding the precise molecular pathomechanisms behind and identifying players involved in the early onset of cardiovascular diseases remains crucial for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Taking advantage of CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in human endothelial cells (ECs), we re-investigated the early molecular steps in a genetic vascular disorder termed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in our recent study (Hiepen C., Jatzlau J. et al.; PLOS Biol, 2019). Here, mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein type II receptor (BMPR2) prime for the hereditary form (HPAH) with downregulated BMPR2 followed by a characteristic change in SMAD signaling, i.e. gain in both SMAD1/5 and SMAD2/3 responses. Remarkably these cells show increased susceptibility to signaling by TGFβ due to remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and increased biomechanics acting as a secondary stressor for ECs pathobiology. This clearly places BMPR2 not only as a BMP-signaling receptor, but also as a gatekeeper to protect ECs from excess TGFβ signaling.

PDF | Published online: 20/01/2020 | In press

ACBP is an appetite stimulator across phylogenetic barriers

Frank Madeo, Nektarios Tavernarakis, José M. Bravo-San Pedro and Guido Kroemer

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PDF | Published online: 20/01/2020 | In press

RPA and Pif1 cooperate to remove G-rich structures at both leading and lagging strand

Laetitia Maestroni, Julien Audry, Pierre Luciano, Stéphane Coulon, Vincent Géli and Yves Corda

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In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the absence of Pif1 helicase induces the instability of G4-containing CEB1 minisatellite during leading strand but not lagging strand replication. We report that RPA and Pif1 cooperate to maintain CEB1 stability when the G4 forming strand is either on the leading or lagging strand templates. At the leading strand, RPA acts in the same pathway as Pif1 to maintain CEB1 stability. Consistent with this result, RPA co-precipitates with Pif1. This association between Pif1 and RPA is affected by the rfa1-D228Y mutation that lowers the affinity of RPA in particular for G-rich single-stranded DNA. At the lagging strand, in contrast to pif1∆, the rfa1-D228Y mutation strongly increases the frequency of CEB1 rearrangements. We explain that Pif1 is dispensable at the lagging strand DNA by the ability of RPA by itself to prevent formation of stable G-rich secondary structures during lagging strand synthesis. Remarkably, overexpression of Pif1 rescues the instability of CEB1 at the lagging strand in the rfa1-D228Y mutant indicating that Pif1 can also act at the lagging strand. We show that the effects of the rfa1-D228Y (rpa1-D223Y in fission yeast) are conserved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Finally, we report that RNase H1 interacts in a DNA-dependent manner with RPA in budding yeast, however overexpression of RNase H1 does not rescue CEB1 instability observed in pif1∆ and rfa1-D228Y mutants. Collectively these results add new insights about the general role of RPA in preventing formation of DNA secondary structures and in coordinating the action of factors aimed at resolving them.

PDF | Published online: 17/01/2020 | In press

Fine intercellular connections in development: TNTs, cytonemes, or intercellular bridges?

Olga Korenkova, Anna Pepe and Chiara Zurzolo

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Intercellular communication is a fundamental property of multicellular organisms, necessary for their adequate responses to changing environment. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) represent a novel means of intercellular communication being a long cell-to-cell conduit. TNTs are actively formed under a broad range of stresses and are also proposed to exist under physiological conditions. Development is a physiological condition of particular interest, as it requires fine coordination. Here we discuss whether protrusions shown to exist during embryonic development of different species could be TNTs or if they represent other types of cell structure, like cytonemes or intercellular bridges, that are suggested to play an important role in development.

PDF | Published online: 07/01/2020 | In press

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