Back to article: Emerging roles of mitochondria and autophagy in liver injury during sepsis

FIGURE 1: Release of inflammatory cytokines from hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and stellate cells during liver inflammation caused by LPS. In the liver of mice systemically administered LPS, residential liver macrophages, Kupffer cells are activated to secrete inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1β. These cytokines in turn activate stellate cells as well as hepatocytes. Both stellate cells and hepatocytes themselves are activated by LPS and subsequently release cytokines.

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